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Measurement of the Value of Products and Services (Copyright)
Gegenwärtig sind Währungen zugleich Messinstrumente für den Wert von Produkten und Leistungen und selbst Waren, die zu verschiedenen Zeiten unterschiedlich bewertet werden. Infolgedessen variieren die Werte von Produkten und Leistungen aufgrund von Veränderungen in zweierlei Hinsicht: Erstens, weil der Wert der Produkte und Leistungen infolge des veränderlichen Verhältnisses zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage schwankt. Zweitens, weil der Wert der Währungen schwankt, in denen die Preise von Produkten und Leistungen gemessen werden. Das ist als wenn man Längen nicht mit dem Pariser Meter messen würde, sondern mit variablen Maßstäben, wie im Mittelalter.
Um Spekulationen gegen Währungen und mit Produkten und Leistungen zu unterbinden oder zu erschweren, muß die Maßstabsfunktion von der Werthaltigkeit getrennt werden. Ein fester Wertmaßstab ohne eigenen Wert - eine Art Verrechnungseinheit - ist erforderlich, ähnlich denen, die im Internationalen Einheitensystem (SI) für verschiedene physikalische Größen festgelegt sind.
The origins of economy have been seen in the needs of human beings. Actually, this is an always less important part of what happens in economy. Needs have been replaced by greed. The reasons lie, I believe, in a kind of psychic or even mental disorder provoked by an early loss of love suffered most seriously by firstborn children. In the following I'll describe one of the many symptoms of this illness.
Humanity has made great progresses in what concerns the invention and use of instruments for measuring. We are now able to measure fairly exactly nearly everything on earth: size, speed, amount, degrees of temperature, length, height, pressure, weight. Even earthquakes can be measured using a scale proposed by Richter.
Instead, in medieval times measurement was inadequate and arbitrary. Concerning the matters mentioned above and some others not mentioned medieval habits have been overcome. One of the most important preconditions for reliable measuring is the calibrated constancy and universal use of scales with standard units. When cubits were used this constancy was not guaranteed. And if scales are changed while measuring is done no exact results are possible. Scales ought to remain constant. That's why the Parisian meter was a very important invention although some little inadequacy still remained because of the influence of temperature on metal. Modern methods have overcome even problems of that kind.
But while size, speed, amount, temperature, length, height, pressure, weight and earthquakes today can be measured in a fairly reliable manner, the situation remains medieval in another very important field, - perhaps even one of the most important: in economy. There still reigns medieval inadequacy and arbitrariness although renowned scientists have considered the matter for centuries. Values, performances and production output - i.e. the value of products and services - are measured and expressed in standard units that at the same time are merchandise, i.e. goods to be bought and sold at varying prices: the currencies. Thus, in a globalized economy the values of products and services vary according to variability in two respects:
First, because the values of products and services depend on the balance of offer and demand.
Second, because the currencies in which the values of products and services are noted vary in consequence of changes in the demand for these currencies.
But nobody seems to recognize this as highly problematic. In more than three centuries of thinking and research economists did not find out - as far as I know - what I have presented here.
Why not? I think, the probable reason is the following: The basis of modern economy lies no more in the needs of the people as in former times but in ever more unsatiable greed. There must be vested interests of various influential persons as politicians, bankers and other profiteers of the actual situation which is a result of globalization and through which powerful speculators became uncontrollable again.
We cannot wait for measures of hundreds of governments to stop this boom of neoliberalism because dangerous crises will arrive soon. What could be done?
The first actions should remedy the fault that money actually has two functions: First, it serves as a measure for values and services. Second, it is valuable itself and serves for storing values. These two functions ought to be separated as was done for example for weighing because the value of a balance in no way influences the value of the goods weighed, even if it serves for weighing gold. A fixed measure without value - a kind of unit for calculation - is needed as was realized for some physical quantities by the International System of Units (SI).
Your institution is the one that should try to find and impose a solution.